Many countries have implemented national security measures that have an impact on shipping and transport, for example:
- the USA, on advance cargo information on maritime container traffic, which must be provided 24 h before the cargo is loaded onboard, and
- the EU, with the certification of Authorized Economic Operators.
The UNECE and its Inland Transport Committee is working on Transport and Security, and is giving recommendations on the use of existing conventions for security.
Major security measures and recommendations have been developed by the WCO in its Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade, which consists of four core elements:
- harmonization of advance electronic cargo information requirements on inbound, outbound and transit shipments,
- commitment by all countries to employ a consistent risk management approach to address security threats,
- performance of an outbound inspection of high-risk containers and cargo by the sending nation's Customs administration, including the use of non-intrusive detection equipment (such as large-scale X-ray machines and radiation detectors) on receipt of a reasonable request by the receiving nation, based upon comparable risk targeting methodology, and
- definition of benefits that Customs will provide to businesses that meet minimal supply chain security standards and best practices.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has developed rules for shipping: the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPSC). This code is divided into parts A and B. Part A is mandatory for those countries that have signed the convention, while Part B is a recommendation.
IMO has developed a standard data-set of security-related information, which the master of a vessel needs to supply to any port of call. It includes reports of ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore activities. A vessel must have a security certificate and qualified security officers both on the vessel and at the shipping line premises.