Utilization of a reference model
An important starting point for each Business Process Analysis (BPA) project should be a reference model - a model which has something in common with the desired solution. By their nature, reference models will provide a generic representation of the processes in a particular domain and may be extended or modified to relate to specific national or product needs. Within the trade facilitation project, that model can be used in several project phases.
Starting with the Identification of the scope, a reference model may help to identify the parties and processes that are involved in the scope of the project and those that are not. Both give important information that can be derived from existing models. The set-up of the project team is helped by reference models as these identify possible stakeholders and participants.
During the modelling phases, existing models may be used as a starting point, which can be modified and extended where needed to meet specific national requirements. They present all the business process information specified in the various UN/CEFACT requirements specifications - see the following examples:
List of reference models designated for public use
UN/CEFACT has provided models of the international supply chain that can be used for education and training, harmonization, reference and re-use. They are called the International Supply Chain Reference model, Buy-Ship-Pay model, Trade Security model and the Port Process model.
The International Supply Chain Reference model describes the processes, parties and documents exchanged in the conduct of International trade. A model with the same origin, but more specific details, was developed later and is called the Buy-Ship-Pay model.
The Buy-Ship-Pay model is specified in UMM (UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology) and covers contributions from CEFACT's experts involved in specifying the business requirements and possible solutions for a range of processes within a supply chain. The model supports trade facilitation actions by:
- providing understanding of the processes involved for those involved in trade facilitation projects
helping to identify the scope of the specific project in terms of the whole process
- providing re-useable descriptions of processes that may be refined for particular countries and organizations
- providing links to the various trade facilitation deliverables from UN/CEFACT and other agencies .
- helping to identify processes causing trade barriers, and by enabling policy measures (such as security-related measures) to be seen in conjunction with existing procedures
- showing "good practice" in international supply chain (ISC) processes, and by being used as an aid in their implementation
- showing the links between processes and information.
Trade Security model
Trade security aspects of the international supply chain are described in the Trade Security model presented by Rudolf J. Bauer at the Meeting on International Trade Security and Facilitation organized by the World Customs Organization and European Commission for Europe, 2003.
Part of the ISCRM model that describes some of the trade security processes is shown in here.
Port Process model
The business processes that take place within a port (based on a model of the Port of Melbourne) are described in the Port of Melbourne (POM) model.